ABSTRACTS

 

Scientific journal "Pacific Oceanography", volume 1, No. 2, 2003.

Chief editor: Dr. Yuriy N. Volkov, FERHRI, Vladivostok, Russia / E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it
The journals can be ordered at: 690600, 24, Fontannaya st., Vladivostok, Russia Kochergin I.E., Department of Engineering Oceanology and Ecological Design (DEO) or by e-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it
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ABSTRACTS

FROM THE EDITORS

Dear colleagues,
This is the second issue of the new international and peer-reviewed journal "Pacific Oceanography". This is a specialized publication devoted to advances in oceanography of the Northwestern Pacific and its marginal seas and related topics.
"Pacific Oceanography" is published by the Far Eastern Regional Hydrometeorological Research Institute (FERHRI, Vladivostok, Russia) but it does not mean that the scientists from Russian Far East have higher priority. Results of joint marine expeditions and research published in "Pacific Oceanography" will be a good proof of establishing international data exchange.
The first two issues of the journal are distributed free of charge. We would be very pleased and grateful to receive, in exchange, any periodical publication or conference proceedings related to oceanography, meteorology and marine ecology. Starting from the 3rd issue, you will be able to subscribe to "Pacific Oceanography" journal or to continue getting it in exchange for other publications.
We invite all Russian and foreign scientists dealing with oceanography and related topics to contribute their results to our journal. The main criteria for publishing a manuscript or a short note in "Pacific Oceanography" are high quality and urgency. We hope our journal will contribute to the progress in oceanography and cooperation between the scientists all over the world.
Starting from this issue, we will open our journal with a review paper. We invite you to submit reviews on oceanographic and meteorological conditions of the seas of the Pacific Ocean or about leading oceanographic institutions working in the Pacific Ocean basin.
We invite advertisers to place their information in "Pacific Oceanography" too. By placing your advertisement in "Pacific Oceanography" you will not only have a chance to find new partners in the Russian Far East, but also help the new Russian journal to grow up and become known worldwide.
Abstracts and contact information of editorial office can be found at http://po.hydromet.com.
We understand that many people may perceive our journal skeptically, but we have started it and are going to continue issuing it twice a year and improving its quality.

PAPERS

Physical Oceanography

SST FRONTS OF THE PACIFIC COASTAL AND MARGINAL SEAS
I. Belkin, P. Cornillon
Graduate School of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island (URI), USA

The Pathfinder AVHRR SST data from 1985–1996 are used to survey thermal fronts of the Pacific coastal and marginal seas. The SST fields are declouded and fronts are detected with the Cayula-Cornillon algorithms developed at the URI. In this work we describe newly found, persistent frontal features and their seasonal variability as well as interannual variability. Major climatic fronts are identified and compared with literature data. The ocean-wide frontal pattern consists of several types of fronts. Western boundary currents (Kuroshio, Oyashio, and the East Australian Current) are associated with well-defined fronts. Eastern boundary fronts are also prominent, especially in the North Pacific (California Current System). In the Tasman Sea, a quasi-stationary bifurcation of the Tasman Front is identified at 35°S, 165°E; the Subtropical Front has been traced from south of Tasmania eastward up to the Southland Current off New Zealand. A well-defined double Subtropical Frontal Zone is confirmed east of New Zealand. A new front is observed in the tropical-subtropical Southeast Pacific. Shelf-slope fronts are observed over the shelf break/upper slope almost everywhere. Being strictly controlled by topography, these fronts are quasi-stationary and therefore readily located from satellite data. Inner shelf fronts are observed in the Bering Sea, Eastern China Seas, and South China Sea. Coastal upwelling fronts are observed west of the American continent. These fronts are seasonally dependent, being best seen in winter. Vast frontal zones, apparently associated with coastal upwelling, extend much farther offshore than anticipated, up to O(1000km) into the open ocean.

HEAT EXCHANGE BETWEEN THE NORTHERN PACIFIC AND THE ATMOSPHERE
A.D. Nelezin1,2, A.N. Man'ko1,2, V.A. Petrova2
1 Far Eastern Regional Hydrometeorological Research Institute (FERHRI), Russia
2 V.I. Il'ichev Pacific Oceanological Institute, Far Eastern Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences (POI FEBRAS), Russia

The components of the surface heat budget are calculated by the data of the on-way observations in the Northern Pacific and using the Methodical Instructions and Recommendations of the Main Hydrometeorological Observatory. Long-time average structure of the surface heat budget, radiation balance, turbulent heat exchange and latent heat are analyzed. Zoning of the Northern Pacific is carried out and the annual motion of the components is studied. The periods of the heat accumulation and heat transfer by the ocean surface are determined.

ON SOME FEATURES OF THE WATER CIRCULATION IN THE NW PACIFIC UNDER DIFFERENT SYNOPTIC CONDITIONS
G.A. Vlasova, S.S. Sugak
V.I. Il'ichev Pacific Oceanological Institute, Far Eastern Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences (POI FEBRAS), Russia

The North Western Pacific is characterized by the extremely complex hydrological conditions: the presence of two largest water structures and two major water mass gyres, the transformed waters of the Far Eastern Seas, etc. All these conditions make the given region to be a powerful zone of the Pacific Ocean, and a unique natural base for investigating a complex of hydrophysical and meteorological processes, which understanding is necessary for the solution of many fundamental and applied problems in oceanography.
In the given paper the integral functions of the flow from the surface to the bottom are calculated for the NW Pacific (20-50°N, 146-180°E) to estimate the water circulation basing on a hydrodynamic model and taking into account the influence of various types of the atmospheric circulation: "north-western", "okhotsk-aleutian" and "cyclones over the ocean". The given model considers a real spatial distribution of the water density, interaction with the atmosphere, variable coefficients of the vertical and horizontal turbulent exchange, β-effect, bottom topography and the coast outline.
As a result the hydrodynamic structures are distinguished for the water area being studied, both non-depending and depending on the type of the atmospheric circulation. The non-depending structures are found in three areas of the evident anticyclonic activity, and in two ones - of the cyclonic activity. Hydrodynamic structures depending on the atmospheric circulation types have their peculiarities in the spatial-temporal distribution. So, in conditions of the "okhotsk-aleutian" type of the atmospheric circulation the anticyclonic motion of waters prevails. Under the influence of the atmospheric circulation "cyclones over the ocean" the cyclonic motion of the water masses prevails.

Marine Meteorology

MULTISCALE CLIMATE VARIABILITY IN THE ASIAN PACIFIC
V.I. Ponomarev1, V.V. Krokhin2, D.D. Kaplunenko1, A.S. Salomatin1
1 V.I. Il'ichev Pacific Oceanological Institute, Far Eastern Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences (POI FEBRAS), Russia
2 Far Eastern Regional Hydrometeorological Research Institute (FERHRI), Russia

The paper describes major patterns of centennial/semi-centennial climatic tendencies and oscillations in the surface air temperature and precipitation for the Northeast Asia in the 20th century, as well as, in the sea surface temperature (SST) for the Northwest Pacific in the second half of the century. Linear trend of monthly mean precipitation and air/water temperature is estimated by two statistical methods. The first one is the least squares method with the Fisher's test for a significance level. The second method is a nonparametric robust method based on the Theil's rank regression and the Kendall's test for a significance level applicable to the dataset with the abnormal distribution function typical for the precipitation time series. Differences of the trend in precipitation estimated by two methods are shown. Regional features of climate change and dominating oscillations associated with cooling or warming, positive or negative precipitation anomalies in different seasons and large-scale areas are found. High seasonality of both climatic trends and the low frequency variability in the studied area are revealed. It is shown that the semi-centennial summer cooling in a central continental area of Asia accompanies the semi-centennial negative SST anomaly in the offshore region of the western subarctic pacific gyre. At the same time, warming at Kamchatka Peninsula and marginal subtropic area of the Northeast Asia accompanies the positive SST trend in the Kuroshio and Aleutian current systems. Similar alternation and seasonality of positive and negative temperature anomalies are also typical for the El Niño signal in the Northwest Pacific SST.

MULTIYEAR VARIABILITY OF NORTH PACIFIC HIGH AND ALEUTIAN LOW
T.V. Bogdanovskaya, N.S. Kupera
Far Eastern Regional Hydrometeorological Research Institute (FERHRI), Russia

Variability of certain features (pressure, coordinates, area) of North Pacific High and Aleutian Low over the last 56 years is analyzed. Analysis is based on the monthly average sea level pressure from NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis in the points of 2.5x2.5° grid from January 1948 to September 2003. Dependency of the area of the center of action (COA) on its parameters, as well as on the El Niño/Southern Oscillation indices, is revealed. It is shown that Aleutian Low was deepening during the last 56 years and its area was increasing in winter-spring. North Pacific High is characterized by weakening and shifting southward. 1970s are considered to be the critical moment for the North Hemisphere atmospheric circulation and affect variability of almost all parameters of two North Pacific centers of action.

INTRA-ANNUAL BUNDLES OF CLIMATIC PARAMETERS
V.A. Svyatukha1, G.Sh. Tsitsiashvili1, T.A. Shatilina2, A.A. Goryainov2
1 Institute of Applied Mathematics, Far Eastern Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences (IAM FEBRAS), Russia
2 Pacific Fisheries Research Centre (TINRO-Centre), Russia

A new approach to the choice of information indicators of climate (atmospheric pressure near the earth surface, in the middle troposphere and near-ground air temperature) that is based on visual estimation of intra-annual bundle fluctuations of climatic parameter trajectories is proposed. Disclosure of intra-annual bundles of climatic parameters provided the opportunity to develop a unique algorithm for the extreme conditions recognition.
The possibility to forecast dramatic events has been studied over dynamics of the attendant feature. Operation of the proposed algorithm is described on the example of recognition of "critical" levels of the Asian pink salmon catch in different fishery regions in the Far Eastern seas.
It is concluded that the suggested method can be used for the forecast of extreme conditions in the natural processes.

Marine Environment

FLUXES AND BALANCE OF 210Pb IN THE NORTHWESTERN JAPAN SEA
S. Otosaka1, M. Baba2, O. Togawa1, E.V. Karasev3
1 Marine Research Laboratory, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), Japan
2 Mutsu Marine Laboratory, Japan Marine Science Foundation (JMSF), Japan
3 Far Eastern Regional Hydrometeorological Research Institute (FERHRI), Russia

A sediment trap experiment was carried out in the western Sea of Japan (Station MS: 41°16'N, 132°21'E, water depth 3424 m). Lead-210 (210Pb) and major components (biogenic opal, biogenic carbonate, organic matter and aluminum) in settling particles were measured. Large (>1000 mg/m2day) mass fluxes derived from the production of diatoms were observed in spring (March-April). Although fluxes of 210Pb were also large in spring, the pattern of seasonal variation of 210Pb flux did not coincide with that of total mass flux. The flux/production (F/P) ratio of 210Pb showed a positive correlation with aluminum flux. However, strong relationship between F/P ratio and biogenic (such as opal and carbonate) fluxes was not observed. At both depths, a strong correlation between F/P ratio and biogenic flux was observed during low-productive season (opal flux <100 mg/m2day). F/P ratio of 210Pb decreased with depth and the vertical decrease of F/P ratio could be explained by 3 processes, (1) removal and vertical transport of 210Pb from the surface layer by settling particles, (2) decomposition of particles in the deep layer, and (3) export by the deep current. F/P ratios of 210Pb at 2746 m depth were large in winter and spring. The large F/P ratio in this season could be caused by the horizontal import of coastal seawater to the bottom layer of the Station MS. It was suggested that seasonal variation of particulate 210Pb flux at the deep layer in the western Japan Basin indicated the formation of the deep water in this area.

THE PRESENT STATUS OF BOTTOM ECOSYSTEMS OF PETER THE GREAT BAY (THE SEA OF JAPAN)
T.A. Belan1,2, A.V. Tkalin1, T.S. Lishavskaya1
1 Far Eastern Regional Hydrometeorological Research Institute (FERHRI), Russia
2 Institute of Marine Biology, Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IMB FEBRAS), Russia

Pollution characteristics and the state of benthic communities in the coastal zone of Peter the Great Bay are discussed. According to the data obtained in August 2001, highest concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs), trace metals (TM), DDT and its metabolites were observed in bottom sediments of Golden Horn Inlet. Contents of Pb, Cu and Zn exceeded the threshold concentrations when serious negative alterations in benthic organisms and their communities were beginning. Relatively low values of pollutants were detected in Ussuriysky Bay. Though bottom sediments of Amursky Bay are characterized by intermediate pollutant concentrations, local zones with elevated pollutant contents were identified (located near industrial and municipal wastewater outfalls and city landfill).
Benthos in Golden Horn Inlet was characterized by poor species composition, low total biomass (10.8 g/m2), and high density of opportunistic polychaete species (Tharyx pacifica up to 4090 ind/m2, Schistomeringos japonica 1636 ind/m2, Capitella capitata 909 ind/m2). The highest values of benthos biomass (253.7 g/m2), species richness and diversity were detected in Ussuriysky Bay. The total benthos biomass in Amursky Bay was 157.5 g/m2. Two non-tolerant species (polychaetes Sigambra bassi and Scalibregma inflatum) became more numerous again in Amursky Bay (as in 1970s), while abundance of some positive pollution indicator species declined. Data on chemicals in bottom sediments in the study areas demonstrated statistically significant decrease in recent years. Possible reason of this trend might be a decreasing pollution load entering the bay.

Applied Oceanography

SEASONAL AND SPATIAL VARIABILITY OF SEA CURRENTS ON THE SAKHALIN NORTHEASTERN SHELF (BY INSTRUMENTAL DATA)
S.I. Rybalko1, G.V. Shevchenko2
1 Far Eastern Regional Hydrometeorological Research Institute (FERHRI), Russia
2 Sakhalin Scientific Research Institute of Fisheries & Oceanography (SakhNIRO), Russia

Mooring of current meters on the shelf and continental slope of northeastern Sakhalin Island by University of Hokkaido (Japan) and FERHRI (Russia) allowed obtaining instrumental data to analyze the seasonal and spatial variability of tidal and residual currents.
The most intensive tidal currents are observed in the shelf zone. Along the shelf slope and farther offshore velocity of tidal currents is low. The shelf break is a transition zone from a cyclonically rotating tidal vector in the open sea to an anticyclonically rotating vector on the shelf.
East Sakhalin Current is observed year round, being most intensive in autumn-winter. The current line is at the shelf edge. High velocity of East Sakhalin Current in winter corresponds to the zonal sea level gradients with high sea level near the shore and low sea level in the deep waters.

SEAWATER DENSITY DISTRIBUTION IN PETER THE GREAT BAY
M.A. Danchenkov
Far Eastern Regional Hydrometeorological Research Institute (FERHRI), Russia

In order to clarify the features of spatial water density distribution in Peter the Great Bay both in summer and winter, the data of unique oceanographic surveys of 1999-2003 have been used. Surface fronts of density - along the coast and 47°N - and steady near-bottom eastward current were revealed. Known Liman current was not traced within the limits of the bay.

INFORMATION

TRACE METALS IN BOTTOM SEDIMENTS NEAR VLADIVOSTOK, RUSSIA
A.V. Tkalin1, B.J. Presley2
1 Far Eastern Regional Hydrometeorological Research Institute (FERHRI),Russia
2 Texas A&M University, College Station, USA

ARSENIC CONTENT IN THE WATERS OF AMURSKY BAY (THE SEA OF JAPAN) IN NOVEMBER 2001
E.A. Grebenyuk
Far Eastern Regional Hydrometeorological Research Institute (FERHRI), Russia

ARGO News

PROFILING FLOATS LOST AND CAUGHT IN THE JAPAN SEA
M.A. Danchenkov1, S.C. Riser2
1 Far Eastern Regional Hydrometeorological Research Institute (FERHRI),
2 School of Oceanography, University of Washington, USA

FERHRI News

ON-LINE OIL SPILL MODELING WITHIN NAVY EXERCISES IN THE NW PACIFIC MARGINAL SEAS IN AUGUST 2003
I.E. Kochergin1, A.A. Bogdanovsky1, I.A. Arshinov1, V.D. Budaeva1, N.S. Kupera1, V.G. Makarov1,2, S.I. Rybalko1, P.A. Fayman1
1 Far Eastern Regional Hydrometeorological Research Institute (FERHRI), Russia
2 National Politechnic Institute, Mexico

History

BEGINNING OF HYDROMETEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS IN VLADIVOSTOK
L.V. Kobylinsky
403th Hydrometeorological Center of Pacific Navy, Russia